Koodal tamil astrology

Prisoners were chained and were watched over by warders. The king was the chief commander of the army and usually led his army in the battlefield. A wide variety of war weapons filled the military arsenal including shields, swords, spears, tridents, maces, bows and arrows. Battles of this age were of two kinds — those fought in the open and those fought around a fort under siege. The Maduraikanci gives a vivid picture of the sophisticated defence mechanism that was in place to protect the fort of Madurai during siege warfare. There were four gates to the fort surmounted by high towers, with massive walls built of rough-hewn stone.

Surrounding the fort on its outside was a deep moat and around the moat was a thick jungle of thorny trees.

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The roads leading to the gates of the fort were wide enough to permit several elephants to pass abreast. There were all kinds of weapons and missiles concealed on the walls on both the sides of the entrance, ready to be discharged on an enemy. There were machines like the fishing rod and angle to catch and drag up those that approach the wall and machines like iron fingers to seize and tear them to pieces. There were also furnaces from which hot oil and molten metal might be poured on those that attempt to scale the wall and iron spokes and spears to shove down those that might succeed in mounting the ramparts.

While besieging a fort, the method adopted by the invading army was to first cut open a wide passage through the jungle around the fort, then fill up the moat to enable the army to approach the walls and finally scale the wall with ladders or break open the gates with the help of elephants trained to do the work. When the battle lines were drawn up, the elephants were placed first, the chariots and cavalry were ranged behind them and the infantry occupied the rear. The chariots and elephants carried the royalty and the generals that led the army and were armed with lances or swords and shields adorned with gold.

The infantry consisted of archers and lancers who also carried swords and large bucklers. The cavalry carried lighter arms than the infantry.

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Since the elephants always formed the most formidable part of an army, it was deemed a great feat of valour to kill an enemy elephant. The main sources of royal revenue were taxes, tributes, customs duties and tolls. Levy of taxes as well as expenditure was at the discretion of the king who decided the rate and incidence of taxes, as well as any remissions. Tolls were collected on the trunk-roads used by caravans and at the frontier of each kingdom.

Customs were levied at seaports where the imported goods landed. The king took one-tenth of the total earnings from pearl-diving and sale of pearls as his royalty.

The items incurring expenditure for the king include the military, gifts to poets and temples, maintenance of educational and health services, building infrastructure such as roads and irrigation and the palace household expenses. Tax remission also deprived the king of some revenue. The palace consisted of not only the members of the royal family but a vast crowd of merchants, officials and entertainers all of whom had to be compensated for their services — this was also a major item of expenditure. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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Part of a series on History of Tamil Nadu Main. Sangam period. Medieval history. Categories : Tamil history Pandyan dynasty Tamilakam.


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